Equations and algorithm for Reverse Osmosis systems normalization

Normalization is a conversion of operational data that allows the user to compare operation at a specific set of conditions to a reference set of conditions in Reverse Osmosis plants. This allows the user to determine whether changes in flow or rejection are caused by fouling, damage to the membrane, or are just due to different operating conditions: temperature, flow and recovery changes and feed water salinity variations.

Equations and algorithm for Reverse Osmosis membranes comparison

Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration membrane datasheets specifications are good for evaluating the quality of the delivered products but almost useless to compare products performance. The main reason for that is that every membrane was tested under different conditions (pressure, salinity, solution composition, recovery, pH and temperature).

Water mass transport coefficient (A-Value) and Salt mass transport coefficient (B-value)

RO and NF membranes can be defined by two parameters known in the industry as A and B-values.


Installation of the rear speakers on the Suzuki Jimny

If you have a Suzuki Jimny up to 2011 (or later) you probably noticed the very bad sound quality of the original sound system. The bad quality is not from the receiver/player but from the low-end Sanyo speakers included on the car and the absence of rear speakers. This tutorial will teach you how to install the rear speakers.

To preserve the original factory warranty this installation will not alter the electric cables, the car body or the holes for fixation.